Mark H. Bickhard, Ph.D.
Lehigh University Philosophy - Mark H. Bickhard
Henry R. Luce Professor in Cognitive Robotics and the Philosophy of Knowledge
Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Science; Epistemology

Professor Bickhard’s extensive interest includes the Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science, and Epistemology. For further information, CV, and publications please visit Professor Bickhard's personal website.

Recent Publications

Mirski, R., Bickhard, M. H.  (2021).  Conventional Minds: An interactivist perspective on social cognition and its enculturation.  New Ideas in Psychology, 62, 100856.

Allen, J. W. P., Çelik, B., & Bickhard, M. H.  (2021).  Age 4 transitions: Reflection as a domain general development for explicit reasoning.  Cognitive Development, 59, 101091.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2021).  Emergent Mental Phenomena.  In Clowes, R. W., Gärtner, K., Hipólito, I.  (Eds.)  The Mind-Technology Problem.  (49-63).  New York: Springer.

Mirski, R., Bickhard, M. H., Eck, D., Gut, A.  (2020).  Encultured Minds, not Error Reduction Minds.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 43, e109.  DOI:

Mirski, R., Bickhard, M. H.  (2019).  Encodingism is not just a bad metaphor.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences42, 37-38.         doi:10.1017/S0140525X19000049

Bickhard, M. H.  (2019).  Dynamics Is Not Enough: An Interactivist Perspective.  Human Development63, 227-244.         10.1159/000503826

Bickhard, M. H.  (2018).  Naturalism, emergence, and brute facts.  In E. Vintiadis, C. Mekios (Eds.)  Brute Facts.  (234-247).  Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H.  (2018).  Stage fright: Internal reflection as a domain general enabling constraint on the emergence of explicit thought.  Cognitive Development, 45, 77-91.

Oguz, E., Bickhard, M. H.  (2018).  Representing is something that we do, not a structure that we “use”: Reply to Gładziejewski.  New Ideas in Psychology49, 27–37.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2017).  How to Operationalize a Person.  New Ideas in Psychology, 44, 2-6.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2017).  The Emergence of Persons.  In Durt, C., Fuchs, T., Tewes, C.  (2017).  Embodiment, Enaction, and Culture.  (201-213).  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2017).  Robot Sociality: Genuine or Simulation?  In Hakli, R., Seibt, J.  (Eds.)  Sociality and Normativity for Robots.  (41-66).  New York: Springer.

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H.  (2017).. Whence Container?  Human Development, 60, 179-185.    DOI: 10.1159/000479843

Bickhard, M. H.  (2017).  Anticipation and Representation.  In R. Poli (Ed.)  Handbook of Anticipation.  New York: Springer.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2017).  Information, Representation, Biology.  Biosemiotics10, 2, 179-193.  doi:10.1007/s12304-017-9296-5

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Inter- and En- Activism: Some thoughts and comparisons.  New Ideas in Psychology, 41, 23-32.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Metatheoretical Issues in Personality Psychology.  In Hal Miller (Ed.)  SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology.  (549-551).  London: Sage.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  The Anticipatory Brain: Two Approaches.  In V. C. Müller  (Ed.)  Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence.  (259-281).  Switzerland: Springer.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Probabilities over What?  Human Development, 59, 34-36.  DOI: 10.1159/000447026

Bickhard, M. H.  (2015).  The Metaphysics of Emergence.  Kairos, 12, 7-25.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2015).  Toward a Model of Functional Brain Processes I: Central Nervous System Functional Micro-architecture.  Axiomathes, 25(3), 217-238.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2015).  Toward a Model of Functional Brain Processes II: Central Nervous System Functional Macro-architecture.  Axiomathes, 25(4), 377-407.

Bickhard, M.H.  (2015).  The Social-Interactive Ontology of Language.  Ecological Psychology, 27(3), 265-277.     DOI: 10.1080/10407413.2015.1068656

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H.  (2015).  Stepping Back: Reflections on a Pedagogical Demonstration of Reflective Abstraction.  Human Development, 58, 245-252.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2014).  Robot Sociality: Genuine or Simulation?  In J. Seibt, R. Hakli, M. Norskov  (Eds.)  Sociable Robotics and the Future of Social Relations.  Series: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications.  (81-86).  Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2014).  Model interaktywistyczny.  In Marcin Miłkowski  (Ed.)  Kognitywistyka. Reprezentacje  (109-165)  Warsaw, Poland: Przeglad Filozoficzno-literacki.     Translation of Bickhard, M. H.  (2009).  The interactivist model.  Synthese 166(3), 547-591.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2014).  What Could Cognition Be, If not Computation … or Connectionism, or Dynamic Systems?  Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology35(1), 53-66.         DOI - 10.1037/a0038059